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For example if you have a fossil trilobite and it was found in the Wheeler Formation.
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Invalidating a patent claim

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The “invention” is set forth by a patent’s “claims” (described below), and individual claims of a patent or patent application may be challenged, as set forth below.Basic information about patents and the process of applying for a patent can be found at the Inventor’s Resources webpage.Also, note that the claims of a patent can be invalidated by federal courts and/or the USPTO only prior to their expiration date.In a patent or patent application, the claims define, in technical terms, the extent, i.e.With respect to publications and foreign patents, it is necessary to look at the date of actual publication or opening to the public.While the minimum acceptable date of prior art is a date preceding the filing date of the patent application which became the patent being challenged, it is preferable to seek prior art with a date more than one year earlier than the filing date of such application.This generally provides some insight into what the examiner felt was patentable and what concessions or representations were made by the applicant.Once one has determined the degree of relevance of the prior art cited by the examiner, one may determine what might be sought through searching for prior art which would be more relevant to the issue of patentability and validity.

In most jurisdictions, a patent is a right to exclude others from making, using, importing, selling or offering for sale the subject matter defined by the claims when the claim is for a thing (apparatus, composition of matter, system, etc.).

Also you may find this video from the Federal Judicial Center helpful in explaining patents and the patenting process.

You can search on the USPTO website or a commercial website for a specific patent number and then download a PDF copy of the patent.

But the fewer the limitations in a claim, the more likely it is that the claim will cover, or "read on," what came before and be rejected during examination or found to be invalid at a later time for lack of novelty or obviousness. In many European countries, patents did not contain claims before the 1970s. patent applications since the enactment of the Patent Act of 1836.

It was then often difficult to decide whether a product infringed a patent, since the sole basis to know the extent of protection was the description, in view of the prior art. However, even among patent legal systems in which the claims are used as the reference to decide the scope of protection conferred by a patent, the way the claims are used may vary substantially.